Class 10th Science Notes | Chapter: Light | Handwritten notes for Full Marks

Light- Reflection & Refraction is a very important chapter in class 10th for scoring perspective as well as learning perspective. Class 10th science is very important, and if you want to pursue your career in the technical field, and “light: reflection and refraction” is crucial for your strong base.

Light is a form of energy that helps us to see things. When a luminous object's light, hits any object and jumps back, which are recognized by our eyes which gives signals to our brain, and our brain processes this signal, and that's how we see things.

Definition: We can define Light as a form of energy that helps us to see things. When a luminous object’s light, hits any object and jumps back, which are recognized by our eyes which gives signals to our brain, and our brain processes this signal, and that’s how we see things.

[PDF] Download Class 10th notes, Chapter Light: Reflaction and Refraction

Law of Reflection:

  1. ∠i=∠r
  2. In law of Reflection, the incident ray, normal & reflected ray all lie in the same plane.

Curved Mirrors:

  • Concave mirror
  • Convex mirror
concave and convex mirror
Concave and convex mirrors
  • Pole:- Centre of Spherical mirror (P)
  • Centre of Curvature (c): Centre of curvature is the center of the spherical mirror because the mirror is the part of a circle.
  • The radius of Curvature (R): Radius of curvature is the distance between pole (P) & center of curvature.
  • Principle Axis: Principle Axis is a straight line passing through pole (P) & the Centre of Curvature.
  • Principle Focus: A no. of rays passes from the principal axis after reflection, and the meeting point (in the case of Convex mirrors, they appear to be meat) is called the principal focus.
  • Focal length: Distance between pole(P) and focal point (f). R =2f.
  • Aperture: Diameter of mirror.

Also Read: Top YouTube Channels for Students in India in 2021

Concave and Convex mirror image Formation chart for class 10th science

Concave mirror

Position of the objectPosition of the imageSize of the imageNature of the image
At InfinityAt the focus(f)Point Size (Highly diminished)Real and inverted (upside down)
Beyond cBetween Focus(f) and curvature(c)Small sizeReal and inverted
At cAt cSame sizeReal and inverted
Between c and fBeyond cEnlargedReal and inverted
At fAt infinityHighly enlargedReal and inverted
Between p and fBehind the mirrorEnlargedVirtual and erect
Concave mirror image formation chart
concave mirror image formation chart for class 10th science notes chapter light
Concave mirror image formation

Convex mirror

Position of the object Position of the image Size of the imageNature of the image
At InfinityAt f (Behind the mirror)Point SizeVirtual and Erect
Between Infinity and poleBetween P and f (behind the mirror)Small SizeVirtual and Erect
convex mirror image formation
convex mirror image formation formation chart for 10th class
Convex mirror image formation

Uses of Concave and convex mirror:

The concave mirror uses:

  1. A concave mirror is used in Torches.
  2. It is used in Searchlights.
  3. It is used in vehicle headlights.
  4. Concave mirror is used as Shaving mirrors.
  5. This mirror is used by doctors.
  6. It is also used in solar furnaces.

Convex mirror Uses:

A convex mirror is used as a rear view mirror in bikes and cars.

Mirror formula for class class 10th science:

Mirror image formula for class 10th
Image fromula

1/f =1/v + 1/v

f= focal length

u= object’s distance from mirror

v= image distance


= (height of Image)/(height of object)= h’/h


When light travels from one medium to another, its direction changes. This phenomenon is known as refraction. It is caused because of a change in the speed of light as it enters from one medium to another.

Case (i): When a light goes from rarer to a denser medium, it bends towards normal.

Case (ii): When a light goes from denser to rarer medium, it bends away from normal.

Refraction class 10th science chapter light

Also Read: CBSE Class 10th Life Process notes for Exams

Laws of Refraction

  1. Incident Ray, Reflected ray, and normal lies in the same plane.
  2. The ratio of the Sine angle of incidence to the sine angle of refraction is a constant for a given pair of media. This is known as Snell’s Law of Refraction.
Snells law of refraction.
Snell’s Law of Refraction.

Lens Concave and convex lens

Concave Lens: Diverging lens

Convex Lens: Converging lens

Concave and convex lens with class 10th science notes
Concave and convex lens

Terms related with Concave and convex lens required for class 10th students

Class 10th science lens related terms
Class 10th science lens
  • Centre of Curvature: Lens has two centers of curvature.
  • Principal axis: The principal axis is a line passing through the center of Curvature.
  • Optical center: Optical center is a point that lies on the principal axis through the rays of light passes without any deflection.
  • Principle focus: Principle focus is the point on the Principle axis of a lens or mirror to which parallel rays of light converge or from which they appear to diverge after refraction or reflection.
  • Focal Length(f): Focal length is the distance between the center of the lens and the principal focus.

Concave and Convex lens image formation chart

Convex Lens

Position of the ObjectPosition of the ImageSize of the ImageNature of the Image
At infinityAt focus (f2)Point Size (Highly diminished)Real and Inverted
Beyond CBetween f2 and C2Smaller than the objectReal and Inverted
At C1At C2Same size as the objectReal and Inverted
Between C1 and F1Beyond C2EnlargedReal and Inverted
At F1At infinityInfinitely large and Highly enlarged Real and Inverted
Between F1 and OOn the same side of the lens as the objectEnlargedVirtual and erect
View PDF for Image formation diagrams

Concave lens

Position of the Object Position of the Image Size of the Image Nature of the Image
At infinityAt F1Point sizeVirtual and erect
Between Infinity and Optical centreBetween F1 and OSmaller than the object Virtual and erect
View PDF for Image formation diagrams

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